AA sequence: LTC3VTSKSIFGITTEDC17PDGQNLC24FKRRHYVVPKIYDSTRGC42AATC46PIPENYDSIHC57C58KTDKC63NE
Disulfide bonds: Cys3-Cys24, Cys17-Cys42, Cys46-Cys57, Cys58-Cys63
Length (aa): 65
Molecular Weight (average): 7283.29 Da
Appearance: <hite lyophilized solid
Solubility: water and saline buffer
CAS number: not available
Purity rate: > 98 %
ρ-Da1a – AdTx1
Selective antagonist of the alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor
AdTx1 (rho-Da1a – ρ-Da1a) is a 65 amino-acid peptide originally isolated from the venom of the green mamba, an African snake (Dendroaspis angusticep). AdTx1 is stabilized by four disulfide bridges and belongs to the family of the three-finger-fold peptide. AdTx1 has subnanomolar affinity (K(i)= 0.35 nM) and high specificity for the human alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor subtype and is 1000 times more potent on this subtype than on other adrenoceptor subtypes. AdTx1 is a potent relaxant of smooth muscles.
AA sequence: LTC3VTSKSIFGITTEDC17PDGQNLC24FKRRHYVVPKIYDSTRGC42AATC46PIPENYDSIHC57C58KTDKC63NE
Isolation and pharmacological characterization of AdTx1, a natural peptide displaying specific insurmountable antagonism of the a1A-adrenoceptor
Venoms are a rich source of ligands for ion channels, but very little is known about their capacity to modulate G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activity. We developed a strategy to identify novel toxins targeting GPCRs. We studied the interactions of mamba venom fractions with alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in binding experiments with (3)H-prazosin. The active peptide (AdTx1) was sequenced by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry fragmentation. Its synthetic homologue was pharmacologically characterized by binding experiments using cloned receptors and by functional experiments on rabbit isolated prostatic smooth muscle. AdTx1, a 65 amino-acid peptide stabilized by four disulphide bridges, belongs to the three-finger-fold peptide family. It has subnanomolar affinity (K(i)= 0.35 nM) and high specificity for the human alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor subtype. We showed high selectivity and affinity (K(d)= 0.6 nM) of radio-labelled AdTx1 in direct binding experiments and revealed a slow association constant (k(on)= 6 x 10(6).M(-1).min(-1)) with an unusually stable alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor/AdTx1 complex (t(1/2diss)= 3.6 h). AdTx1 displayed potent insurmountable antagonism of phenylephrine’s actions in vitro (rabbit isolated prostatic muscle) at concentrations of 10 to 100 nM. AdTx1 is the most specific and selective peptide inhibitor for the alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor identified to date. It displays insurmountable antagonism, acting as a potent relaxant of smooth muscle. Its peptidic nature can be exploited to develop new tools, as a radio-labelled-AdTx1 or a fluoro-labelled-AdTx1. Identification of AdTx1 thus offers new perspectives for developing new drugs for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia.
G protein-coupled receptors, an unexploited animal toxin targets: Exploration of green mamba venom for novel drug candidates active against adrenoceptors
At a time when pharmaceutical companies are having trouble finding new low MW drugs and when biologics are becoming more common, animal venoms could constitute an underexploited source of novel drug candidates. We looked for identifying novel animal toxins active against G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), the most frequently exploited class of treatment targets, with the aim to develop novel research tools and drug candidates. Screening of green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom against adrenoceptors identified two novel venom peptides. ρ-Da1a shown an affinity of 0.35 nM for the α1a-AR while ρ-Da1b displayed affinities between 14 and 73 nM for the three α2-ARs. These two venom peptides have sequences similar to those of muscarinic toxins and belong to the three-finger-fold protein family. α1a-AR is the primary target for the treatment of prostate hypertrophy. In vitro and in vivo tests demonstrated that ρ-Da1a reduced prostatic muscle tone as efficiently as tamsulosin (an antagonist presently used), but with fewer cardiovascular side effects. α2-ARs are the prototype of GPCRs not currently used as treatment targets due to a lack of specific ligands. Blockage of these receptors increases intestinal motility, which may be compromised by abdominal surgery and reduces orthosteric hypotension. In vitro and in vivo tests demonstrated that ρ-Da1b antagonizes α2-ARs in smooth muscles and increased heart rate and blood catecholamine concentrations. These results highlight possible exploitation of ρ-Da1a and ρ-Da1b in important pathologies.
Crystallization of recombinant green mamba ρ-Da1a toxin during a lyophilization procedure and its structure determination
Maïga A., et al. (2013) Crystallization of recombinant green mamba ρ-Da1a toxin during a lyophilization procedure and its structure determination. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. PMID: 23722859
ρ-Da1a toxin from eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom is a polypeptide of 65 amino acids with a strong affinity for the G-protein-coupled α(1A)-adrenoceptor. This neurotoxin has been crystallized from resolubilized lyophilized powder, but the best crystals grew spontaneously during lyophilization. The crystals belonged to the trigonal space group P3(1)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 37.37, c = 66.05 Å, and diffracted to 1.95 Å resolution. The structure solved by molecular replacement showed strong similarities to green mamba muscarinic toxins.
Effects of ρ-Da1a a peptidic α(1) (A) -adrenoceptor antagonist in human isolated prostatic adenoma and anaesthetized rats
ρ-Da1a, a 65 amino-acid peptide, has subnanomolar affinity and high selectivity for the human α(1) (A) -adrenoceptor subtype. The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacological effects of ρ-Da1a on prostatic function, both in vivo and in vitro. ρ-Da1a was tested as an antagonist of adrenaline-induced effects on COS cells transfected with the human α(1) (A) -adrenoceptor as well as on human isolated prostatic adenoma obtained from patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia. Moreover, we compared the effects of ρ-Da1a and tamsulosin on phenylephrine (PHE)-induced increases in intra-urethral (IUP) and arterial pressures (AP) in anaesthetized rats, following i.v. or p.o. administration. On COS cells expressing human α(1) (A) -adrenoceptors and on human prostatic strips, ρ-Da1a inhibited adrenaline- and noradrenaline-induced effects. In anaesthetized rats, ρ-Da1a and tamsulosin administered i.v. 30 min before PHE significantly antagonized the effects of PHE on IUP. The pK(B) values for tamsulosin and ρ-Da1a for this effect were similar. With regards to AP, ρ-Da1a only reduced the effect of PHE on AP at the lowest dose tested (10 μg·kg(-1) ), whereas tamsulosin significantly reduced PHE effects at doses between 10 and 150 μg·kg(-1) . ρ-Da1a exhibited a relevant effect on IUP and a small effect on AP. In contrast, tamsulosin antagonized the effects of PHE on both IUP and AP. We conclude that ρ-Da1a is more uroselective than tamsulosin. ρ-Da1a is the most selective peptidic antagonist for α(1A) -adenoceptors identified to date and could be a new treatment for various urological diseases.
Orthosteric binding of ρ-Da1a, a natural peptide of snake venom interacting selectively with the α1A-adrenoceptor
ρ-Da1a is a three-finger fold toxin from green mamba venom that is highly selective for the α1A-adrenoceptor. This toxin has atypical pharmacological properties, including incomplete inhibition of (3)H-prazosin or (125)I-HEAT binding and insurmountable antagonist action. We aimed to clarify its mode of action at the α1A-adrenoceptor. The affinity (pKi 9.26) and selectivity of ρ-Da1a for the α1A-adrenoceptor were confirmed by comparing binding to human adrenoceptors expressed in eukaryotic cells. Equilibrium and kinetic binding experiments were used to demonstrate that ρ-Da1a, prazosin and HEAT compete at the α1A-adrenoceptor. ρ-Da1a did not affect the dissociation kinetics of (3)H-prazosin or (125)I-HEAT, and the IC50 of ρ-Da1a, determined by competition experiments, increased linearly with the concentration of radioligands used, while the residual binding by ρ-Da1a remained stable. The effect of ρ-Da1a on agonist-stimulated Ca(2+) release was insurmountable in the presence of phenethylamine- or imidazoline-type agonists. Ten mutations in the orthosteric binding pocket of the α1A-adrenoceptor were evaluated for alterations in ρ-Da1a affinity. The D106(3.32)A and the S188(5.42)A/S192(5.46)A receptor mutations reduced toxin affinity moderately (6 and 7.6 times, respectively), while the F86(2.64)A, F288(6.51)A and F312(7.39)A mutations diminished it dramatically by 18- to 93-fold. In addition, residue F86(2.64) was identified as a key interaction point for (125)I-HEAT, as the variant F86(2.64)A induced a 23-fold reduction in HEAT affinity. Unlike the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor toxin MT7, ρ-Da1a interacts with the human α1A-adrenoceptor orthosteric pocket and shares receptor interaction points with antagonist (F86(2.64), F288(6.51) and F312(7.39)) and agonist (F288(6.51) and F312(7.39)) ligands. Its selectivity for the α1A-adrenoceptor may result, at least partly, from its interaction with the residue F86(2.64), which appears to be important also for HEAT binding.
Polypharmacology profiles and phylogenetic analysis of three-finger toxins from mamba venom: case of aminergic toxins
Composition of mamba’s venom is quite atypical and characterized by the presence of a large diversity of three-finger fold toxins (3FTx) interacting with various enzymes, receptors and ion channels. In particular, 3FTx from mambas display the unique property to interact with class A GPCRs, sometimes with a high affinity and selectivity. A screening of five of these toxins (MT1, MT3, MT7, ρ-Da1a and ρ-Da1b) on 29 different subtypes of bioaminergic receptors, using competition binding experiments, highlights the diversity of their pharmacological profiles. These toxins may display either absolute selectivity for one receptor subtype or a polypharmacological property for various bioaminergic receptors. Nevertheless, adrenoceptor is the main receptor family targeted by these toxins. Furthermore, a new receptor target was identified for 3FTx and toxins in general, the ρ-Da1b interacting competitively with the human dopamine D3 receptor in the micromolar range. This result expands the diversity of GPCRs targeted by toxins and more generally highlights the multipotent interacting property of 3FTx. Phylogenic analyzes of these toxins show that muscarinic, adrenergic and dopaminergic toxins may be pooled in one family called aminergic toxins, this family coming probably from a specific radiation of ligands present in mamba venoms.