ATX-II is a Nav1.5 activator

ATX-II was originally discovered in 1976 by extraction from the tentacles of Anemonia sulcata (Bergman et al., 1976). At that time, it was already discovered that it has activity on voltage-dependent Na+ channels from the frog Rana esculenta by slowing the rate of inactivation. Later, it was found that the purified toxin has a positive inotropic effect on isolated guinea pig atria linked to delayed inactivation of the Na+ channel (Alsen et al., 1982). ATX-II acts as a late inward Na+ current inducer in the heart that produces atrial arrhythmias, partly because it also promotes Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activation and concomitant Nav1.5 channel phosphorylation and further activation (Liang et al., 2016). Because late inward Na+ current is difficult to witness, but is a risk factor for the induction of cardiac arrhythmias, it is now mandatory for the FDA that all drugs to be approved should lack effect on the ATX-II-induced late inward Nav1.5 Na+ current. ATX-II is a site 3 toxin and affects domain IV voltage-sensor movement. ATX-II is a carboxylated 47 amino acid peptides with 3 disulfide bridges and of 4934.7 Da molecular weight, recently produced by Smartox Biotechnology in its synthetic form.

BULK quantities are available.

ATX-II has been tested on the human Nav1.5 channel at various concentrations at a holding potential of -90 mV and a test potential of 10 mV. Test depolarization lasted 50 ms. Appearance of a significant late Na current is visible at 1 nM and this effect is further enhanced at 10 nM ATX-II illustrating the potency of the synthetic compound of Smartox

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Product code: ATX002. Category: . Tag: .

Disulfide bonds: Cys4-Cys44, Cys6-Cys34, Cys27-Cys45
Length (aa): 47
Formula: C213H323N63O61S6
Molecular Weight: 4934.63 g/mol
CAS number: 60748-45-0
Source: Synthetic
Purity rate: > 95 %

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Studies on the mechanism of the positive inotropic effect of ATX II...
Inhibitions of late Ina and CaMKII act synergistically to prevent ATX-II-induced...