AA sequence: LTC3VKSNSIWFPTSEDC17PDGQNLC24FKRWQYISPRMYDFTRGC42AATC46PKAEYRDVINC57C58GTDKC63NK
Disulfide bonds: Cys3-Cys24, Cys17-Cys42, Cys46-Cys57, Cys58-Cys63
Length (aa): 65
Molecular Weight: 7472.53 Da
Appearance: White lyophilized solid
Solubility: water and saline buffer
CAS number: not available
Purity rate: > 98%
MT7 – Muscarinic Toxin 7
Blocker of M1-subtype of muscarinic receptor
Muscarinic toxin 7 (MT7 – m1-toxin 1) has been isolated from the venom of the green mamba (Dendroaspis Angusticeps). MT7 potently blocks M1-subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors at a subnanomolar affintiy. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are G-protein coupled receptors that mediate the metabotropic effects of acetylcholine. M1-type muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are well known therapeutic targets to improve cognitive functions in patients with Alzheimer disease. Contrary to many ligands that target mAChRs (pirenzepine, carbamoylcholine chloride, 4-DAMP or atropine), MT7 is the most selective M1-subtype antagonist as it is about 10,000 times more selective for M1-subtype than other subtypes. MT7 toxin is an ideal tool to identify the muscarinic receptor subtype expression in tissues for example. MT7 toxin belongs to the three finger toxin family such as rho-Da1a.
AA sequence: LTC3VKSNSIWFPTSEDC17PDGQNLC24FKRWQYISPRMYDFTRGC42AATC46PKAEYRDVINC57C58GTDKC63NK
Structural determinants for the interactions between muscarinic toxin 7 and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors
Xu J., et al. (2015) Structural determinants for the interactions between muscarinic toxin 7 and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. J Mol Recognit. PMID: 25683330
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) have five subtypes and play crucial roles in various physiological functions and pathophysiological processes. Poor subtype specificity of mAChR modulators has been an obstacle to discover new therapeutic agents. Muscarinic toxin 7 (MT7) is a natural peptide toxin with high selectivity for the M1 receptor. With three to five residues substituted, M3, M4, and M5 receptor mutants could bind to MT7 at nanomolar concentration as the M1 receptor. However, the structural mechanisms explaining MT7-mAChRs binding are still largely unknown. In this study, we constructed 10 complex models of MT7 and each mAChR subtype or its mutant, performed molecular dynamics simulations, and calculated the binding energies to investigate the mechanisms. Our results suggested that the structural determinants for the interactions on mAChRs were composed of some critical residues located separately in the extracellular loops of mAChRs, such as Glu4.56, Leu4.60, Glu/Gln4.63, Tyr4.65, Glu/Asp6.67, and Trp7.35. The subtype specificity of MT7 was attributed to the non-conserved residues at positions 4.56 and 6.67. These structural mechanisms could facilitate the discovery of novel mAChR modulators with high subtype specificity and enhance the understanding of the interactions between ligands and G-protein-coupled receptors.
Molecular conversion of muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor M5 to Muscarinic Toxin (MT7) binding protein
Rondinelli S., et al. (2011) Molecular conversion of muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor M5 to Muscarinic Toxin (MT7) binding protein. Toxins. PMID: 22174976
Muscarinic toxin 7 (MT7) is a mamba venom peptide that binds selectively to the M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. We have previously shown that the second (ECL2) and third (ECL3) extracellular loops of the M(1) receptor are critically involved in binding the peptide. In this study we used a mutagenesis approach on the M(5) subtype of the receptor family to find out if this possesses a similar structural architecture in terms of toxin binding as the M(1) receptor. An M(5) receptor construct (M(5)-E(175)Y(184)E(474)), mutated at the formerly deciphered critical residues on ECL2 and 3, gained the ability to bind MT7, but with rather low affinity as determined in a functional assay (apparent K(i) = 24 nM; apparent K(i) for M(1) = 0.5 nM). After screening for different domains and residues, we found a specific residue (P(179) to L in M(5)) in the middle portion of ECL2 that was necessary for high affinity binding of MT7 (M(5)-EL(179)YE, apparent K(i) = 0.5 nM). Mutation of P(179) to A confirmed a role for the leucine side chain in the binding of MT7. Together the results reveal new binding interactions between receptors and the MT7 peptide and strengthen the hypothesis that ECL2 sequence is of utmost importance for MT binding to muscarinic receptors.
Different interaction between MT7 toxin and the human muscarinic M1 Receptor in its free san N-Methylscopolamine occupied states.
Fruchart-Gaillard C., et al. (2008) Different interaction between MT7 toxin and the human muscarinic M1 Receptor in its free san N-Methylscopolamine occupied states. Mol Pharmacol. PMID: 18784346
Muscarinic MT7 toxin is a highly selective and potent antagonist of the M(1) subtype of muscarinic receptor and acts by binding to an allosteric site. To identify the molecular determinants by which MT7 toxin interacts with this receptor in its free and NMS-occupied states, the effect on toxin potency of alanine substitution was evaluated in equilibrium and kinetic binding experiments as well as in functional assays. The determination of the crystallographic structure of an MT7-derivative (MT7-diiodoTyr51) allowed the selection of candidate residues that are accessible and present on both faces of the three toxin loops. The equilibrium binding data are consistent with negative cooperativity between N-methylscopolamine (NMS) and wild-type or modified MT7 and highlight the critical role of the tip of the central loop of the toxin (Arg34, Met35 Tyr36) in its interaction with the unoccupied receptor. Examination of the potency of wild-type and modified toxins to allosterically decrease the dissociation rate of [(3)H]NMS allowed the identification of the MT7 residues involved in its interaction with the NMS-occupied receptor. In contrast to the results with the unoccupied receptor, the most important residue for this interaction was Tyr36 in loop II, assisted by Trp10 in loop I and Arg52 in loop III. The critical role of the tips of the MT7 loops was also confirmed in functional experiments. The high specificity of the MT7-M(1) receptor interaction exploits several MT7-specific residues and reveals a different mode of interaction of the toxin with the free and NMS-occupied states of the receptor.
Kukkonen A., et al. (2004) Muscarinic Toxin 7 selectivity is dictated by extracellular receptor loops. JBC. PMID: 15452105
Muscarinic toxin 7 (MT7) is a mamba venom protein antagonist with extremely high selectivity for the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. To map the sites for the interaction of MT7 with muscarinic receptors we have used chimeric M1:M3 receptors and site-directed mutagenesis of the M3 and M4 receptor subtypes. Two Glu residues in M1, one in extracellular loop 2 and one in extracellular loop 3, were found to be important for the high affinity binding of MT7. Substitution of the corresponding Lys residues in the M3 receptor with Glu converted the M3 mutant to an MT7 binding receptor, albeit with lower affinity compared with M1. A Phe –> Tyr substitution in extracellular loop 2 of M3 together with the 2 Glu mutations generated a receptor with an increased MT7 affinity (apparent Ki = 0.26 nM in a functional assay) compared with the M1 receptor (apparent Ki = 1.31 nM). The importance of the identified amino acid residues was confirmed with a mutated M4 receptor constructs. The results indicate that the high selectivity of MT7 for the M1 receptor depends on very few residues, thus providing good prospects for future design and synthesis of muscarinic receptor-selective ligands.
Effects of muscarinic toxins MT2 and MT7, from green mamba venom, on m1, m3 and m5 muscarinic receptors expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells
Bradley KN. et al. (2003) Effects of muscarinic toxins MT2 and MT7, from green mamba venom, on m1, m3 and m5 muscarinic receptors expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. Toxicon. PMID: 12565740
Several small proteins called muscarinic toxins (MTs) have been isolated from venom of green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps). They have previously been shown in radioligand binding studies to have high selectivity and affinity for individual muscarinic receptor subtypes, but less is known of their functional effects. This study has examined the actions of two of these MTs, MT2 and MT7, using changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) measured using the fluorescent indicator fura-2 in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with individual muscarinic receptor subtypes, m1, m3 and m5. MT2 activated the m1 receptor: at concentrations above 100 nM it caused significant and concentration-dependent increases in [Ca(2+)](i). From 25 to 800 nM MT2 also produced increases in [Ca(2+)](i) by activating m3 receptors, although these increases in [Ca(2+)](i) were not strictly concentration-dependent with only intermittent responses being recorded (i.e. it was not always possible to obtain a response to the agonist with each application of the compound). MT2 (800-1600 nM) also caused significant increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in CHO cells expressing the m5 muscarinic receptor subtype. MT7 (1 microM) displayed no agonist activity at any of the muscarinic receptors but was a potent non-competitive antagonist (at 20 nM) at the m1 muscarinic receptor subtype. It had no antagonist activity at the m3 or m5 subtypes. These results indicate that MT7 is a highly specific antagonist at the m1 muscarinic receptor subtype as suggested by results from radioligand binding studies. However, MT2 is less selective for the m1 muscarinic receptor than previously described as it also exhibits agonist activity at the m3 and m5 muscarinic receptors, which was not detected in radioligand binding studies.
Inhibition of acetylcholine muscarinic M1 receptor function by the M1-selective ligand muscarinic toxin 7 (MT-7)
Olianas MC., et al. (2000) Inhibition of acetylcholine muscarinic M1 receptor function by the M1-selective ligand muscarinic toxin 7 (MT-7). Br J Pharmacol. PMID: 11015294
MT-7 (1 – 30 nM), a peptide toxin isolated from the venom of the green mamba Dendroaspis angusticeps and previously found to bind selectively to the muscarinic M(1) receptor, inhibited the acetylcholine (ACh)-stimulated [(35)S]-guanosine-5′-O-(3-thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]-GTPgammaS) binding to membranes of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the cloned human muscarinic M(1) receptor subtype. MT-7 failed to affect the ACh-stimulated [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding in membranes of CHO cells expressing either the M(2), M(3) or M(4) receptor subtype. In N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells endogenously expressing the M(1) and M(4) receptor subtypes, MT-7 (0.3 – 3.0 nM) inhibited the carbachol (CCh)-stimulated inositol phosphates accumulation, but failed to affect the CCh-induced inhibition of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) 38-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation. In both CHO/M(1) and N1E-115 cells the MT-7 inhibition consisted in a decrease of the maximal agonist effect with minimal changes in the agonist EC(50) value. In CHO/M(1) cell membranes, MT-7 (0.05 – 25 nM) reduced the specific binding of 0.05, 1.0 and 15 nM [(3)H]-N-methylscopolamine ([(3)H]-NMS) in a concentration-dependent manner, but failed to cause a complete displacement of the radioligand. Moreover, MT-7 (3 nM) decreased the dissociation rate of [(3)H]-NMS by about 5 fold. CHO/M(1) cell membranes preincubated with MT-7 (10 nM) and washed by centrifugation and resuspension did not recover control [(3)H]-NMS binding for at least 8 h at 30 degrees C. It is concluded that MT-7 acts as a selective noncompetitive antagonist of the muscarinic M(1) receptors by binding stably to an allosteric site.