AA sequence : Asp-Cys2-Thr-Arg-Met-Phe-Gly-Ala-Cys9-Arg-Arg-Asp-Ser-Asp-Cys15-Cys16-Pro-His-Leu-Gly-Cys21-Lys-Pro-Thr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Cys28-Ala-Trp-Asp-Gly-Thr-Ile-NH2
Disulfide bonds : Cys2-Cys16, Cys9-Cys21 and Cys15-Cys28
Length (aa) : 34
Formula : C156H237N49O48S7
Molecular Weight : 3791,3 Da
Appearance : white lyophilized solid
Solubility : water or saline buffer
CAS number :
Source : Synthetic
Purity rate : > 98%
160 $ – 895 $
Blocker of Kv2 channels
Stromatoxin-1 (ScTx-1) has been isolated from the venom of the African tarentula Stromatopelma calceata.Stromatoxin-1 is a 34 amino-acid long peptide that belongs to the structural family of inhibitor cystine knot peptides reticulated by three disulfide bridges. It has an amidated C-terminus and bears strong homology with hanatoxin 1 (83%).Stromatoxin-1 inhibits with high affinities Kv2.1 and Kv2.2, that encode delayed K+ channels (respectively, with IC50 of 12 and 21 nM). The block is voltage-dependent and slowly reversible. Stromatoxin-1 is also a very sensitive inhibitor of Kv4.2, that encodes a transient K+ current (IC50 of 1.2 nM). Here also, the block is voltage-dependent indicating that ScTx-1 acts as a gating modifier rather than a pore blocker. Reversibility is faster on Kv4.2 channels. In contrast,Stromatoxin-1 has no effect on Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv1.3, Kv1.4, Kv1.5, Kv1.6 or Kv3.4 channels. The toxin has also no effect on voltage-dependent Na+ and Ca2+ channels of cerebellar granule cells. Stromatoxin-1 was found to increase the spontaneous phasic contraction amplitude, muscle force and tone in isolated rat urinary bladder smooth muscle. It also enhances myogenic constriction in pressurized arterial segments.
AA sequence : Asp-Cys2-Thr-Arg-Met-Phe-Gly-Ala-Cys9-Arg-Arg-Asp-Ser-Asp-Cys15-Cys16-Pro-His-Leu-Gly-Cys21-Lys-Pro-Thr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Cys28-Ala-Trp-Asp-Gly-Thr-Ile-NH2
Peripheral nerve injuries caused by trauma are associated with increased sensory neuron excitability and debilitating chronic pain symptoms. Axotomy-induced alterations in the function of ion channels are thought to largely underlie the pathophysiology of these phenotypes. Here, we characterise the mRNA distribution of Kv2 family members in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and describe a link between Kv2 function and modulation of sensory neuron excitability. Kv2.1 and Kv2.2 were amply expressed in cells of all sizes, being particularly abundant in medium-large neurons also immunoreactive for neurofilament-200. Peripheral axotomy led to a rapid, robust and long-lasting transcriptional Kv2 downregulation in the DRG, correlated with the onset of mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. The consequences of Kv2 loss-of-function were subsequently investigated in myelinated neurons using intracellular recordings on ex vivo DRG preparations. In naïve neurons, pharmacological Kv2.1/Kv2.2 inhibition by stromatoxin-1 (ScTx) resulted in shortening of action potential (AP) after-hyperpolarization (AHP). In contrast, ScTx application on axotomized neurons did not alter AHP duration, consistent with the injury-induced Kv2 downregulation. In accordance with a shortened AHP, ScTx treatment also reduced the refractory period and improved AP conduction to the cell soma during high frequency stimulation. These results suggest that Kv2 downregulation following traumatic nerve lesion facilitates greater fidelity of repetitive firing during prolonged input and thus normal Kv2 function is postulated to limit neuronal excitability. In summary, we have profiled Kv2 expression in sensory neurons and provide evidence for the contribution of Kv2 dysfunction in the generation of hyperexcitable phenotypes encountered in chronic pain states.
Voltage-gated K+ channels sensitive to stromatoxin-1 regulate myogenic and neurogenic contractions of rat urinary bladder smooth muscle
Members of the voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channel family are suggested to control the resting membrane potential and the repolarization phase of the action potential in urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM). Recent studies report that stromatoxin-1, a peptide isolated from tarantulas, selectively inhibits K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, K(V)4.2, and K(V)2.1/9.3 channels. The objective of this study was to investigate whether K(V) channels sensitive to stromatoxin-1 participate in the regulation of rat UBSM contractility and to identify their molecular fingerprints. Stromatoxin-1 (100 nM) increased the spontaneous phasic contraction amplitude, muscle force, and tone in isolated UBSM strips. However, stromatoxin-1 (100 nM) had no effect on the UBSM contractions induced by depolarizing agents such as KCl (20 mM) or carbachol (1 microM). This indicates that, under conditions of sustained membrane depolarization, the K(V) channels sensitive to stromatoxin-1 have no further contribution to the membrane excitability and contractility. Stromatoxin-1 (100 nM) increased the amplitude of the electrical field stimulation-induced contractions, suggesting also a role for these channels in neurogenic contractions. RT-PCR experiments on freshly isolated UBSM cells showed mRNA expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and K(V)9.3, but not K(V)4.2 channel subunits. Protein expression of K(V)2.1 and K(V)2.2 channels was detected using Western blot and was further confirmed by immunocytochemical detection in freshly isolated UBSM cells. These novel findings indicate that K(V)2.1 and K(V)2.2, but not K(V)4.2, channel subunits are expressed in rat UBSM and play a key role in opposing both myogenic and neurogenic UBSM contractions.
KV2.1 and electrically silent KV channel subunits control excitability and contractility of guinea pig detrusor smooth muscle
Voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels are implicated in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) function. However, little is known about the functional role of the heterotetrameric K(V) channels in DSM. In this report, we provide molecular, electrophysiological, and functional evidence for the presence of K(V)2.1 and electrically silent K(V) channel subunits in guinea pig DSM. Stromatoxin-1 (ScTx1), a selective inhibitor of the homotetrameric K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and K(V)4.2 as well as the heterotetrameric K(V)2.1/6.3 and K(V)2.1/9.3 channels, was used to examine the role of these K(V) channels in DSM function. RT-PCR indicated mRNA expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)6.2-6.3, K(V)8.2, and K(V)9.1-9.3 subunits in isolated DSM cells. K(V)2.1 protein expression was confirmed by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Perforated whole cell patch-clamp experiments revealed that ScTx1 (100 nM) inhibited the amplitude of the K(V) current in freshly isolated DSM cells. ScTx1 (100 nM) did not significantly change the steady-state activation and inactivation curves for K(V) current. However, ScTx1 (100 nM) decreased the activation time-constant of the K(V) current at positive voltages. Although our patch-clamp data could not exclude the presence of the homotetrameric K(V)2.1 channels, the biophysical characteristics of the ScTx1-sensitive current were consistent with the presence of heterotetrameric K(V)2.1/silent K(V) channels. Current-clamp recordings showed that ScTx1 (100 nM) did not change the DSM cell resting membrane potential. ScTx1 (100 nM) increased the spontaneous phasic contraction amplitude, muscle force, and muscle tone as well as the amplitude of the electrical field stimulation-induced contractions of isolated DSM strips. Collectively, our data revealed that K(V)2.1-containing channels are important physiological regulators of guinea pig DSM excitability and contractility.
The present study was conducted to characterize possible rapid effects of 17-β-estradiol on voltage-gated K(+) channels in preoptic neurons and, in particular, to identify the mechanisms by which 17-β-estradiol affects the K(+) channels. Whole-cell currents from dissociated rat preoptic neurons were studied by perforated-patch recording. 17-β-Estradiol rapidly (within seconds) and reversibly reduced the K(+) currents, showing an EC(50) value of 9.7 µM. The effect was slightly voltage dependent, but independent of external Ca(2+), and not sensitive to an estrogen-receptor blocker. Although 17-α-estradiol also significantly reduced the K(+) currents, membrane-impermeant forms of estradiol did not reduce the K(+) currents and other estrogens, testosterone and cholesterol were considerably less effective. The reduction induced by estradiol was overlapping with that of the K(V)-2-channel blocker r-stromatoxin-1. The time course of K(+) current in 17-β-estradiol, with a time-dependent inhibition and a slight dependence on external K(+), suggested an open-channel block mechanism. The properties of block were predicted from a computational model where 17-β-estradiol binds to open K(+) channels. It was concluded that 17-β-estradiol rapidly reduces voltage-gated K(+) currents in a way consistent with an open-channel block mechanism. This suggests a new mechanism for steroid action on ion channels.
Postnatal development of A-type and Kv1- and Kv2-mediated potassium channel currents in neocortical pyramidal neurons
Potassium channels regulate numerous aspects of neuronal excitability, and several voltage-gated K(+) channel subunits have been identified in pyramidal neurons of rat neocortex. Previous studies have either considered the development of outward current as a whole or divided currents into transient, A-type and persistent, delayed rectifier components but did not differentiate between current components defined by α-subunit type. To facilitate comparisons of studies reporting K(+) currents from animals of different ages and to understand the functional roles of specific current components, we characterized the postnatal development of identified Kv channel-mediated currents in pyramidal neurons from layers II/III from rat somatosensory cortex. Both the persistent/slowly inactivating and transient components of the total K(+) current increased in density with postnatal age. We used specific pharmacological agents to test the relative contributions of putative Kv1- and Kv2-mediated currents (100 nM α-dendrotoxin and 600 nM stromatoxin, respectively). A combination of voltage protocol, pharmacology, and curve fitting was used to isolate the rapidly inactivating A-type current. We found that the density of all identified current components increased with postnatal age, approaching a plateau at 3-5 wk. We found no significant changes in the relative proportions or kinetics of any component between postnatal weeks 1 and 5, except that the activation time constant for A-type current was longer at 1 wk. The putative Kv2-mediated component was the largest at all ages. Immunocytochemistry indicated that protein expression for Kv4.2, Kv4.3, Kv1.4, and Kv2.1 increased between 1 wk and 4-5 wk of age.
Stromatoxin-sensitive, heteromultimeric Kv2.1/Kv9.3 channels contribute to myogenic control of cerebral arterial diameter
Cerebral vascular smooth muscle contractility plays a crucial role in controlling arterial diameter and, thereby, blood flow regulation in the brain. A number of K(+) channels have been suggested to contribute to the regulation of diameter by controlling smooth muscle membrane potential (E(m)) and Ca(2+) influx. Previous studies indicate that stromatoxin (ScTx1)-sensitive, Kv2-containing channels contribute to the control of cerebral arterial diameter at 80 mmHg, but their precise role and molecular composition were not determined. Here, we tested if Kv2 subunits associate with ‘silent’ subunits from the Kv5, Kv6, Kv8 or Kv9 subfamilies to form heterotetrameric channels that contribute to control of diameter of rat middle cerebral arteries (RMCAs) over a range of intraluminal pressure from 10 to 100 mmHg. The predominant mRNAs expressed by RMCAs encode Kv2.1 and Kv9.3 subunits. Co-localization of Kv2.1 and Kv9.3 proteins at the plasma membrane of dissociated single RMCA myocytes was detected by proximity ligation assay. ScTx1-sensitive native current of RMCA myocytes and Kv2.1/Kv9.3 currents exhibited functional identity based on the similarity of their deactivation kinetics and voltage dependence of activation that were distinct from those of homomultimeric Kv2.1 channels. ScTx1 treatment enhanced the myogenic response of pressurized RMCAs between 40 and 100 mmHg, but this toxin also caused constriction between 10 and 40 mmHg that was not previously observed following inhibition of large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) and Kv1 channels. Taken together, this study defines the molecular basis of Kv2-containing channels and contributes to our understanding of the functional significance of their expression in cerebral vasculature. Specifically, our findings provide the first evidence of heteromultimeric Kv2.1/Kv9.3 channel expression in RMCA myocytes and their distinct contribution to control of cerebral arterial diameter over a wider range of E(m) and transmural pressure than Kv1 or BK(Ca) channels owing to their negative range of voltage-dependent activation.
KCNQ gene expression was previously shown in various rodent blood vessels, where the products of KCNQ4 and KCNQ5, Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 potassium channel subunits, respectively, have an influence on vascular reactivity. The aim of this study was to determine if small cerebral resistance arteries of the rat express KCNQ genes and whether Kv7 channels participate in the regulation of myogenic control of diameter. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) was undertaken using RNA isolated from rat middle cerebral arteries (RMCAs) and immunocytochemistry was performed using Kv7 subunit-specific antibodies and freshly isolated RMCA myocytes. KCNQ4 message was more abundant than KCNQ5 = KCNQ1, but KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 message levels were negligible. Kv7.1, Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 immunoreactivity was present at the sarcolemma of freshly isolated RMCA myocytes. Linopirdine (1 microm) partially depressed, whereas the Kv7 activator S-1 (3 and/or 20 microm) enhanced whole-cell Kv7.4 (in HEK 293 cells), as well as native RMCA myocyte Kv current amplitude. The effects of S-1 were voltage-dependent, with progressive loss of stimulation at potentials of >15 mV. At the concentrations employed linopirdine and S-1 did not alter currents due to recombinant Kv1.2/Kv1.5 or Kv2.1/Kv9.3 channels (in HEK 293 cells) that are also expressed by RMCA myocytes. In contrast, another widely used Kv7 blocker, XE991 (10 microm), significantly attenuated native Kv current and also reduced Kv1.2/Kv1.5 and Kv2.1/Kv9.3 currents. Pressurized arterial myography was performed using RMCAs exposed to intravascular pressures of 10-100 mmHg. Linopirdine (1 microm) enhanced the myogenic response at 20 mmHg, whereas the activation of Kv7 channels with S-1 (20 microm) inhibited myogenic constriction at >20 mmHg and reversed the increased myogenic response produced by suppression of Kv2-containing channels with 30 nm stromatoxin (ScTx1). These data reveal a novel contribution of KCNQ gene products to the regulation of myogenic control of cerebral arterial diameter and suggest that Kv7 channel activating drugs may be appropriate candidates for the development of an effective therapy to ameliorate cerebral vasospasm.
Membrane potential-dependent inactivation of voltage-gated ion channels in alpha-cells inhibits glucagon secretion from human islets
To document the properties of the voltage-gated ion channels in human pancreatic alpha-cells and their role in glucagon release.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:
Glucagon release was measured from intact islets. [Ca(2+)](i) was recorded in cells showing spontaneous activity at 1 mmol/l glucose. Membrane currents and potential were measured by whole-cell patch-clamping in isolated alpha-cells identified by immunocytochemistry.
Glucose inhibited glucagon secretion from human islets; maximal inhibition was observed at 6 mmol/l glucose. Glucagon secretion at 1 mmol/l glucose was inhibited by insulin but not by ZnCl(2). Glucose remained inhibitory in the presence of ZnCl(2) and after blockade of type-2 somatostatin receptors. Human alpha-cells are electrically active at 1 mmol/l glucose. Inhibition of K(ATP)-channels with tolbutamide depolarized alpha-cells by 10 mV and reduced the action potential amplitude. Human alpha-cells contain heteropodatoxin-sensitive A-type K(+)-channels, stromatoxin-sensitive delayed rectifying K(+)-channels, tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+)-currents, and low-threshold T-type, isradipine-sensitive L-type, and omega-agatoxin-sensitive P/Q-type Ca(2+)-channels. Glucagon secretion at 1 mmol/l glucose was inhibited by 40-70% by tetrodotoxin, heteropodatoxin-2, stromatoxin, omega-agatoxin, and isradipine. The [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations depend principally on Ca(2+)-influx via L-type Ca(2+)-channels. Capacitance measurements revealed a rapid (<50 ms) component of exocytosis. Exocytosis was negligible at voltages below -20 mV and peaked at 0 mV. Blocking P/Q-type Ca(2+)-currents abolished depolarization-evoked exocytosis.
Human alpha-cells are electrically excitable, and blockade of any ion channel involved in action potential depolarization or repolarization results in inhibition of glucagon secretion. We propose that voltage-dependent inactivation of these channels underlies the inhibition of glucagon secretion by tolbutamide and glucose.
Voltage-gated ion channels in human pancreatic beta-cells: electrophysiological characterization and role in insulin secretion
To characterize the voltage-gated ion channels in human beta-cells from nondiabetic donors and their role in glucose-stimulated insulin release.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:
Insulin release was measured from intact islets. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments and measurements of cell capacitance were performed on isolated beta-cells. The ion channel complement was determined by quantitative PCR.
Human beta-cells express two types of voltage-gated K(+) currents that flow through delayed rectifying (K(V)2.1/2.2) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels. Blockade of BK channels (using iberiotoxin) increased action potential amplitude and enhanced insulin secretion by 70%, whereas inhibition of K(V)2.1/2.2 (with stromatoxin) was without stimulatory effect on electrical activity and secretion. Voltage-gated tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Na(+) currents (Na(V)1.6/1.7) contribute to the upstroke of action potentials. Inhibition of Na(+) currents with TTX reduced glucose-stimulated (6-20 mmol/l) insulin secretion by 55-70%. Human beta-cells are equipped with L- (Ca(V)1.3), P/Q- (Ca(V)2.1), and T- (Ca(V)3.2), but not N- or R-type Ca(2+) channels. Blockade of L-type channels abolished glucose-stimulated insulin release, while inhibition of T- and P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels reduced glucose-induced (6 mmol/l) secretion by 60-70%. Membrane potential recordings suggest that L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels participate in action potential generation. Blockade of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels suppressed exocytosis (measured as an increase in cell capacitance) by >80%, whereas inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels only had a minor effect.
Voltage-gated T-type and L-type Ca(2+) channels as well as Na(+) channels participate in glucose-stimulated electrical activity and insulin secretion. Ca(2+)-activated BK channels are required for rapid membrane repolarization. Exocytosis of insulin-containing granules is principally triggered by Ca(2+) influx through P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels.
Structural basis of binding and inhibition of novel tarantula toxins in mammalian voltage-dependent potassium channels
Voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv2.1 is widely expressed in mammalian neurons and was suggested responsible for mediating the delayed rectifier (I(K)) currents. Further investigation of the central role of this channel requires the development of specific pharmacology, for instance, the utilization of spider venom toxins. Most of these toxins belong to the same structural family with a short peptide reticulated by disulfide bridges and share a similar mode of action. Hanatoxin 1 (HaTx1) from a Chilean tarantula was one of the earliest discussed tools regarding this and has been intensively applied to characterize the channel blocking not through the pore domain. Recently, more related novel toxins from African tarantulas such as heteroscordratoxins (HmTx) and stromatoxin 1 (ScTx1) were isolated and shown to act as gating modifiers such as HaTx on Kv2.1 channels with electrophysiological recordings. However, further interaction details are unavailable due to the lack of high-resolution structures of voltage-sensing domains in such mammalian Kv channels. Therefore, in the present study, we explored structural observation via molecular docking simulation between toxins and Kv2.1 channels based upon the solution structures of HaTx1 and a theoretical basis of an individual S3(C) helical channel fragment in combination with homology modeling for other novel toxins. Our results provide precise chemical details for the interactions between these tarantula toxins and channel, reasonably correlating the previously reported pharmacological properties to the three-dimensional structural interpretation. In addition, it is suggested that certain subtle structural variations on the interaction surface of toxins may discriminate between the related toxins with different affinities for Kv channels. Evolutionary links between spider peptide toxins and a “voltage sensor paddles” mechanism most recently found in the crystal structure of an archaebacterial K(+) channel, KvAP, are also delineated in this paper.
Novel Tarantula Toxins for Subtypes of Voltage-Dependent Potassium Channels in the Kv2 and Kv4 Subfamilies
Three novel peptides with the ability to inhibit voltage-dependent potassium channels in the shab (Kv2) and shal (Kv4) subfamilies were identified from the venom of the African tarantulas Stromatopelma calceata (ScTx1) and Heteroscodra maculata (HmTx1, HmTx2). The three toxins are 34- to 38-amino acid peptides that belong to the structural family of inhibitor cystine knot spider peptides reticulated by three disulfide bridges. Electrophysiological recordings in COS cells show that these toxins act as gating modifier of voltage-dependent K+ channels. ScTx1 is the first high-affinity inhibitor of the Kv2.2 channel subtype (IC50, 21.4 nM) to be described. ScTx1 also inhibits the Kv2.1 channels, with an IC50 of 12.7 nM, and Kv2.1/Kv9.3 heteromultimers that have been proposed to be involved in O2 sensing in pulmonary artery myocytes. In addition, it is the most effective inhibitor of Kv4.2 channels described thus far, with an IC50 of 1.2 nM. HmTx toxins share sequence similarities with both the potassium channel blocker toxins (HmTx1) and the calcium channel blocker toxin omega-GsTx SIA (HmTx2). They inhibit potassium current associated with Kv2 subtypes in the 100 to 300 nM concentration range. HmTx2 seems to be a specific inhibitor of Kv2 channels, whereas HmTx1 also inhibits Kv4 channels, including Kv4.1, with the same potency. HmTx1 is the first described peptide effector of the Kv4.1 subtype. Those novel toxins are new tools for the investigation of the physiological role of the different potassium channel subunits in cellular physiology.